A timeline of beauty defined through the ages


Historical Timeline
History of the Born Gay Debate & Theories of Sexual Orientation


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"The word Homosexualität was coined by the German-Hungarian Károly Mária Kertbeny (born Karl Maria Benkert; 1824–82). It is a compound of Greek homo, same, and timeline Medieval Latin sexualis, sexual, and was coined along the lines of the late eighteenth-century French botanical terms unisexuel and bisexuel... It occurs first in a letter to Karl Heinrich Ulrichs dated 6 May 1868, and then in two pamphlets published in 1869 in Leipzig arguing for reform of Paragraph 143 of the Prussian Penal Code penalizing sexual relations between men...
Kertbeny invented the term ‘homosexuality’ as part of an argument that it was natural, and a matter of private behaviour which should be beyond the interference of the law. He intended it to be used as a neutral, non-prejudicial term within legal arguments, which centred on the concept of equal rights and protection of minorities. ‘Homosexuality’ thus originated not as a medical term, but rather as a neutral, legal, scientific term...
The word ‘homosexual’ did not appear in English until 1891, in John Addington Symonds’ A Problem in Modern Ethics where he used the phrase ‘homosexual instincts.’ No one seems to have remarked on the irony that the first English person to write the word ‘homosexual’ already was a homosexual long before he put pen to paper."

Rictor Norton, PhD  "'The Term 'Homosexual,'" http://rictornorton.co.uk, June 1, 2002, updated June 19, 2008



The Kinsey Scale.
Source: Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction (accessed Dec. 2, 2011)

"The Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale, sometimes referred to as the ‘Kinsey Scale,' was developed by Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues Wardell Pomeroy and Clyde Martin in 1948, in order to account for research findings that showed people did not fit into neat and exclusive heterosexual or homosexual categories...
As Kinsey writes in Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948):
'Males do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and homosexual. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats…The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects.'"

Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction "Kinsey's Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale," www.kinseyinstitute.org (accessed Nov. 18, 2011)


Kinsey found that "8% of males were ex[c]lusively homosexual for at least three years between the ages of 16 and 55."

Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction "Data from Alfred Kinsey's Studies,” kinseyinstitute.org (accessed Nov. 18, 2011)




Alfred Kinsey conducts an interview.
Source: Photographer William Dellenback, The Kinsey Institute (accessed on Jan. 6, 2011)

"The Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale, sometimes referred to as the ‘Kinsey Scale,' was developed by Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues Wardell Pomeroy and Clyde Martin in 1948, in order to account for research findings that showed people did not fit into neat and exclusive heterosexual or homosexual categories...
As Kinsey writes in Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948):
'Males do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and homosexual. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats…The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects.'"

Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction "Kinsey's Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale," www.kinseyinstitute.org (accessed Nov. 18, 2011)


Kinsey found that "8% of males were ex[c]lusively homosexual for at least three years between the ages of 16 and 55."

Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction "Data from Alfred Kinsey's Studies,” kinseyinstitute.org (accessed Nov. 18, 2011)




William Masters and Virginia Johnson appear on Meet the Press in 1979.
Source: Thomas Maier, "Can Psychiatrists Really ‘Cure' Homosexuality?” Scientific American, Apr. 22, 2009. Courtesy: Basic Books

"Back in 1979, on Meet The Press and countless other TV appearances, [William] Masters and [Virginia] Johnson touted their book, Homosexuality in Perspective—a 14-year study of more than 300 homosexual men and women… The results seemed impressive: Of the 67 male and female patients with 'homosexual dissatisfaction,' only 14 failed in the initial two-week 'conversion' or 'reversion' treatment…
[When Masters and Johnson's top associate, Robert Kolodny, asked to see the files regarding conversions] Masters refused to show them to him. Kolodny—who had never seen any conversion cases himself—began to suspect some, if not all, of the conversion cases were not entirely true. When he pressed Masters, it became ever clearer to him that these were at best composite case studies made into single ideal narratives, and at worst they were fabricated.
Eventually Kolodny approached Virginia Johnson privately to express his alarm. She, too, held similar suspicions about Masters' conversion theory, though publicly she supported him...
Until he died in 2001 Masters felt confident their book would be embraced eventually by the medical community, not just by purveyors of religious or political agendas. He believed the prospect of "conversion" therapy offered more hope, more freedom to patients than psychoanalysis ever could."

Thomas Maier, MA  "Can Psychiatrists Really ‘Cure' Homosexuality?” Scientific American, Apr. 22, 2009



The Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR), which is part of the Jewish Reform movement [the largest Jewish branch in the United States], released the following statement in 1990:
"It is clear, however, that for many people sexual orientation is not a matter of conscious choice but is constitutional and therefore not subject to change. It is also true that for some, sexual orientation may be a matter of conscious choice…
In Jewish tradition heterosexual, monogamous, procreative marriage is the ideal human relationship for the perpetuation of species, covenantal fulfillment, and the preservation of the Jewish people. While acknowledging that there are other human relationships which possess ethical and spiritual value and that there are some people for whom heterosexual, monogamous, procreative marriage is not a viable option or possibility, the majority of the committee reaffirms unequivocally the centrality of this ideal and its special status as kiddushin [Jewish marriage]. To the extent that sexual orientation is a matter of choice, the majority of the committee affirms that heterosexuality is the only appropriate Jewish choice for fulfilling one's covenantal obligations."

[Editor's Note: In Mar. 1996, the CCAR resolved to "support the right of gay and lesbian couples to share fully and equally in the rights of civil marriage and be it further resolved, that the CCAR oppose any governmental efforts to ban gay and lesbian marriage."]



David M. Halperin, PhD, becomes one of the leading academic advocates for the social constructionist view of homosexuality. He writes in his book, One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love:
"...[C]onstructionists have demonstrated, I believe, that the distinction between homosexuality and heterosexuality, far from being a fixed and immutable feature of some universal syntax of sexual desire, can be understood as a particular conceptual turn in thinking about sex and deviance that occurred in certain sectors of northern and northwestern European society in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The new conceptualization, moreover, seems to coincide with the emergence, in the same period (or in the centuries immediately preceding it), of some new sexual types—namely the homosexual and the heterosexual, defined not as persons who perform certain acts, or who adhere to one sex role or another, or who are characterized by strong or weak desires, or who violate or observe gender-boundaries, but as persons who possess two distinct kinds of subjectivity, who are inwardly oriented in a specific direction, and who therefore belong to a separate and determinate human species. From what I have been able to tell, these new sexual types, the homosexual and the heterosexual, do not represent merely new ways of classifying persons—that is, innovations in moral or judicial language—but new types of desire, new kinds of desiring human beings."

David M. Halperin, PhD  One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love, 1990



"Human homosexuality can be traced back at least several thousand years. A substantially genetic cause could not be maintained over this time because of the great fitness costs that homosexuality imposes, unless there is some compensating benefit. But no evidence for a compensating benefit exists. Inclusive fitness benefits, for example, seem insufficient to overcome the reduction in reproduction, because male homosexuals do not channel their resources into the well-being of kin at an increased level..."Human homosexuality can be traced back at least several thousand years. A substantially genetic cause could not be maintained over this time because of the great fitness costs that homosexuality imposes, unless there is some compensating benefit. But no evidence for a compensating benefit exists. Inclusive fitness benefits, for example, seem insufficient to overcome the reduction in reproduction, because male homosexuals do not channel their resources into the well-being of kin at an increased level...
In contrast with difficulties of noninfectious explanations of homosexuality, the hypothesis of infectious causation does not incorporate critical logical flaws or contradictions of fundamental biological principles. Indeed, anecdotal reports indicate that changes in human sexual orientation have occurred following changes in the limbic area due to trauma or infection... One possible route [of transmission] would be sexual, whereby homosexual behavior could facilitate spread because of the larger numbers of partners homosexual males may have on average, relative to heterosexual males. Alternatively, transmission could be partly or entirely by one or more nonsexual routes, and homosexual orientation be a side effect of the infection that is unrelated to transmission."

Gregory Cochran, PhD and Paul W. Ewald, PhD "Infectious Causation of Disease: An Evolutionary Perspective," Perspective in Biology and Medicine, Spring 2000




In a study of adolescent same-sex twins, opposite-sex [OS] twins, and the siblings of twins, sociologists found the highest rate of reported same-sex attraction [16.8%] among male adolescents with a female twin. They argue that these findings support their hypothesis that:
"parents (and other socialization agents') interactions with OS twins are less scripted with respect to gender socialization. Specifically, because OS twins are similar, except for gender, parents are hypothesized to treat them similarly. Less gendered upbringing, should, if the social influence is correct, be associated with increased rates of same-sex erotic preference, especially for males."
In contrast to many other studies of identical twins and sexual orientation, this study finds a 6.7% concordance rate among identical twins, a 7.2% concordance rate among fraternal twins, and a 5.5% concordance rate for siblings of the twins. The authors write, "Clearly, the observed concordance rates do not correspond to degrees of genetic similarity."
The researchers also reject studies that cite a birth order effect [males with older brothers are more likely to be homosexual]. "We find no association between same-sex attraction and number of older siblings, older brothers, or older sisters."

Peter Bearman, PhD and Hannah Brückner, PhD "Opposite-Sex Twins and Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction," The American Journal of Sociology, Mar. 2002



"New Jersey on Monday became the second state after California to ban so-called conversion therapy aimed at changing the sexual orientation of gay minors after Gov. Chris Christie [R] signed into law a bill to prohibit the controversial practice...
In a signing letter released after Christie took action, he said that he took into account concerns about the government 'limiting parental choice' in the treatment of their children.
'However, I also believe that on issues of medical treatment for children we must look to experts in the field to determine the relative risks and rewards' the governor added. 'The American Psychological Assn. has found that efforts to change sexual orientation can pose critical health risks including, but not limited to, depression, substance abuse, social withdrawal, decreased self-esteem and suicidal thoughts.
'I believe that exposing children to these health risks without clear evidence of benefits that outweigh these serious risks is not appropriate. Based upon this analysis, I sign this bill into law.'...
The anti-conversion therapy bill, A-3371, declares that being 'lesbian, gay or bisexual is not a disease, disorder, illness, deficiency or shortcoming,' and it bans licensed therapists from providing gay-to-straight conversion therapy to children under age 18."

Los Angeles Times  "Chris Christie Signs N.J. Bill Banning Gay Conversion Therapy," www.latimes.com, Aug. 19, 2013



"For men, new research suggests that clues to sexual orientation may lie not just in the genes, but in the spaces between the DNA, where molecular marks instruct genes when to turn on and off and how strongly to express themselves.
On Thursday, UCLA molecular biologist Tuck C. Ngun reported [at the American Society of Human Genetics meeting] that in studying the genetic material of 47 pairs of identical male twins, he has identified 'epigenetic marks' in nine areas of the human genome that are strongly linked to male homosexuality.
In individuals, said Ngun, the presence of these distinct molecular marks can predict homosexuality with an accuracy of close to 70%...
But experts said the results -- as yet unpublished in a peer-reviewed journal -- offer preliminary new evidence that a man's genetic inheritance is only one influence on his sexual orientation. Through the epigenome, the results suggest, some facet of life experience likely also primes a man for same-sex attraction…
By imprinting themselves on the epigenome, though, environmental influences may powerfully affect how an individual's genes express themselves over the course of his life. Ngun's findings suggest they may interact with genes to nudge sexual orientation in one direction or the other.”

Los Angeles Times  "Scientists Find DNA Differences between Gay Men and Their Straight Twin Brothers," www.latimes.com, Oct. 8, 2015


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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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A timeline of beauty defined through the ages

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